Humans are the only apes that form a multi-level society

Current human society is typically based on the family, at the core of which is a monogamous pair. However, it is different from the pair society of gibbons. Human society has also a higher-level society, called a community, which is based on multiple families strongly related to each other through marriage. Among apes, this multi-level society is unique to humans.

■References (Books, papers, Web articles, etc.)
人類進化論——霊長類学からの展開』 第6章 社会的知性とコミュニケーション  山極寿一 (裳華房、2002)
家族進化論』 第1章 家族をめぐる謎  山極寿一 (東京大学出版会、2012)

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