Among Japanese macaques belonging to the same group, there is a linear hierarchy* from the highest to the lowest, and the macaque recognizes its own and others’ ranks in the hierarchy.
When two macaques face-off with each other over a piece of food, the higher ranking one always takes the food, and the lower ranking one does not obstruct it. When higher ranking individuals approach lower ranking individuals with their tails up to show their dominance, the lower ranked individual shows submissiveness with a grimacing facial expression or submissive voice.
*In a linear dominance hierarchy, there are no “three-cornered deadlocks.” That is, if individual A is dominant to individual B, and B is dominant to C, then A is always dominant to C.
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