Agonistic interaction among three Japanese macaques

Japanese macaques recognize not only their own ranking in relation to others, but also the ranking relationships between other individuals. This becomes clear when three individuals are involved in an agonistic interaction.

Here, it is assumed that the individuals A, B, and C have a linear rank relationship of A>B>C (with A being the highest ranked). C, the lowest-ranked individual, cannot repel the higher-ranked B from food. However, if the individual A (higher than B) is close, C will try to draw A’s attention while showing a submissive expression to B. Upon noticing the situation, A immediately rushes in and chases B around. As a result, C has an opportunity to acquire food through utilizing the ranking relationship between A and B.

■References (Books, papers, Web articles, etc.)
ニホンザルの生態』  河合雅雄 (河出書房、1964)
サル学再考』  水原洋城 (群羊社、1986)

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