Symbolism and Connectionism

"Symbolism" began with the symbol world of the human mind and made achievements in the field of information (reasoning, planning, etc.). Search engines and natural language translation are a few examples. This is a top-down approach of AI.

"Connectionism" started from the material world, and has achieved results in the field of image analysis and motion analysis, both of which are beyond symbols. Basically, it is a signal processing, which automatically discriminates various information coming from the world.

This is a popular bottom-up artificial approach of AI. What it will achieve is unknown, and the combination, learning method, and simulation are being researched every day, and the biggest achievement in recent years is deep learning.

■References (Books, papers, Web articles, etc.)
絵でわかる人工知能』  森川 幸人、三宅 陽一郎 二〇一六年 「テレビゲームへの人工知能技術の利用」 森川 幸人 人工知能学会誌 Vol.14 No.2 一九九八年

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References list of "AI meets Philosophy: how to design the Game AI"