Van Schaik’s socio-ecological model

In the 1980s, Western primatologists also presented hypotheses of primate social evolution, proceeding based on the theory of natural selection. First of all, primate females, who give birth and engage in child rearing, form groups as an adaptation to food competition and predator avoidance. Secondly, males join groups to seek mates. Females favor males capable of protecting their infants from being killed by males of the same species. Furthermore, it is thought that food resource competition leads to hostile relationships between groups and affinitive interactions between group members.

■References (Books, papers, Web articles, etc.)
How Humans Evolved (Eighth Edition)  Robert Boyd W. W. Norton & Company; Eighth edition (December 1, 2017)
サルの食卓』  中川尚史 (平凡社、1994)
霊長類生態学——環境と行動のダイナミズム』  杉山幸丸編著 (京都大学学術出版会、2000)

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