The origin of human paternity

Perhaps, like gorillas, through male participation in child-rearing, our early human ancestors also extended the scope of their compassion and care, the expression of which was formerly found only between mothers and their children—even extending it throughout a community comprising multiple families. It is thought that this may have developed the behavior of reaching out to provide assistance without seeking any reciprocal benefit.

■References (Books, papers, Web articles, etc.)
家族の起源―父性の登場』 第5章・第5節 父性の発達  山極寿一 (東京大学出版会、19994)
暴力はどこからきたか——人間性の起源を探る』 第5章 暴力の自然誌―子殺しから戦争まで  山極寿一 (NHKブックス、2007)
父という余分なもの: サルに探る文明の起源』  山極寿一 (新潮社、2015)

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The References list of “Evolution of Human Sociality”